Smaller ekranoplans for non-military use have been under development. With its short wings, it looked airplane-like in planform, but would obviously be incapable of flight. The Soviet Navy ordered Orlyonok -class ekranoplans , but this figure was later reduced to fewer than 30 vessels, with planned deployment mainly in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea fleets. Powered rotor Unpowered free flight Free balloon. In , that vehicle was registered as a ship in the Singapore Registry of Ships.

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Flight International March These craft could be flown out of ground effect so that, for example, peninsulas could be overflown. The Soviet Navy ordered Orlyonok -class ekranoplansbut this figure was later reduced to fewer than 30 vessels, with planned deployment mainly in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea fleets.

Ground-effect vehicle – Wikipedia

Amateur Yacht Research Society, A ground-effect vehicle needs some forward velocity to produce lift dynamically and the principal benefit ekrxnoplan operating a wing in ground effect is to reduce its lift-dependent drag. In recent wig craft and ekranoplan a large number of different GEV types have been developed for both civilian and military use.

These craft were originally developed as high-speed military transports and were usually based on the shores of the Caspian Sea and Black Sea.


GEVs developed since the s have aand primarily smaller craft designed for the recreational and civilian ferry markets.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The craft was dubbed the Caspian Sea Monster by U. WIG rides above the surface like an airplane on a dynamic air cushion that is produced by the vessel’s forward motion. Inthat vehicle was registered as a ship in the Singapore Registry of Wig craft and ekranoplan. The Ekranoplan has two engines and no armament. Aircraft can climb over most ekfanoplan, but ground-effect vehicles are more limited.

Once sufficient speed has built up, some GEVs wgi be capable of leaving ground effect and functioning as normal aircraft until they approach their destination.

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Retrieved from ” https: By the s, the ground effect phenomenon was well-known, as pilots found that their airplanes appeared to become more efficient as they neared the runway surface during landing. The original, built in ’60s, crashed in ’70s”. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

Furthermore, the limited number of egress points make it more difficult to evacuate the vehicle in an emergency. But on large-sized aircraft, over water, the question may be attempted Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 45, 2,pp. Easy Ways to Study Ground Effects. Careful design, usually with multiple redesigns of hullforms, is required to get this right, which increases engineering costs. A second Lunrenamed Spasatelwas laid down as a rescue vessel, but was never finished.


Nielsen Book Data Publisher’s Summary WIGs Wing in Ground are advanced hybrid air cushion crafts and they offer the combination of speed, fuel efficiency, and wig craft and ekranoplan smoothness. The basic design principle is that the closer the wing operates to an external surface such as the ground, said to be in ground effectthe more efficient it becomes.

Ground-effect vehicle

Since wig craft and ekranoplan ground-effect craft are designed to operate from water, accidents and engine failure typically are less hazardous than in a land-based aircraft, but the lack of altitude control leaves the pilot with fewer options for avoiding collision, and to some extent that discounts such benefits.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. WIG craft and ekranoplan [electronic resource]: Nielsen Book Data The Arms Production Dilemma: A tiltwing or tiltrotor aircraft functions as an aeroplane during normal horizontal flight and as a helicopter during low-speed flight.